第一代人權

嗯,因為不知道要記錄、寫下什麼,所以拿這二天趁空檔時在翻譯的一部人權動畫小短片來檔一下。


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The series “WissensWerte” (civic education clips) on human rights consists of a general film on this issue and one film on each of the three dimensions of human rights. Each dimension carries equal weight in the human rights system.
這系列有關人權的公民教育短片,包括此議題一般知識、人權的三代發展。每一代人權概念在人權體系中都具有同等重要性。

The clips also examine the role of NGOs, the rights of women, the further development of the human rights system and the most important problems.
這支短片也檢覙非政府組織的角色、婦女權利、人權體系的進一步發展與最重要的問題。

This clip looks at the first dimension, civil and political rights. It also tells the history of human rights and looks at current human rights violations.
這支短片先來看第一個面向:公民政治權利。它將從人權歷史談起,並檢視目前的人權侵害。

Let us begin by looking at the current human rights situation:
讓我們從現況人權分析開始。

Human rights are being violated all over the world. Every day. In 2010, Amnesty Interna¬tional documented cases of torture and major restrictions on freedom of opinion in almost half of all countries.
世界上每天都正發生人權侵害。2010年,國際特赦組織記錄了酷刑個案以及全球仍有半數國家限制表達意見自由。

Governments around the world therefore face the same task: how to respect, protect and real¬ize human rights.
因此我們面臨了相同的挑戰:如何尊重、保護以及實現人權 

This includes a free press as well as the abolition of the death penalty.
這包括自由的媒體環境以及廢除死刑的試練

The NGO Freedom House identified the places with the worst human rights violations in 2011.
美國非政府組織自由之家指出,2011年某些人權侵害最嚴重的地區

But human rights violations also occur in industrialized Western democracies which respect the rule of law.
但是即使在一些西方工業化實行法治的民主國家,仍會發生一些人權侵害事件

For example, Europe has a restrictive asylum policy. Due to the EU’s hermetically sealed external borders, refugees are often unable to exercise their right to apply for asylum. Many refugees pay for their attempt to reach the EU with their lives.
例如在歐洲現行的庇護政策仍有許多限制,由於歐盟一致地封鎖了邊境,因此外來的難民往往不能行使其申請庇護的權利。許多難民為了逃到歐洲,可說是以生命、生活為代價。

What is more, certain communities, for instance the Roma, still face discrimination.
再者某些社群,如羅曼人,仍然易遭歧視

The US continues to uphold the death penalty. Furthermore, it is still detaining prisoners in Guantanamo without due process of law.
美國繼續保留死刑制度,甚致在未有正當法律程序的狀況下,持續拘禁關達那摩的囚犯 。

But not only states can violate human rights.
不只是國家可侵害人權

Non-state players such as organized crime or rebel groups can commit grave human rights violations. These include human trafficking, forced labour, expulsions or the recruitment of child soldiers.
非國家的行為者,例如犯罪組織或是反叛集團也能迫害人權。包括人口販運、強迫勞動、驅逐或招募兒童兵等。

Large companies can also disregard human rights for the sake of economic success, for example by paying low wages, tolerating child labour, preventing the formation of trade unions or imposing working conditions which are detrimental to health. States often fail to take suffi¬ciently resolute action in order not to jeopardize domestic and foreign investment.
大型企業以經濟獲利的理由繼續忽視人權,例如為了減少工資而容許童工的存在 阻礙工會組織 或是勞動條件不佳有害健康的工作環境。國家因害怕危及國內外投資意願,未能採取足夠的解決行動。

Human rights are therefore still being violated on a large scale. Full realization of all rights is not in sight. Nevertheless, humanity has made considerable progress over the years and continues to do so. That becomes evident when we take a look at the past.
人權因此大規模地受到迫害。完整地實現所有權利似乎仍不可及。儘管如此,這些年來,人類還是有長足的進步,且要繼續努力。尤其當我們回顧過往,一切更為證實。

Where do human rights actually come from and how have they developed?
到底人權是從何而來,他們又是如何發展呢?

The first precursor of the human rights concept emerged as far back as classical antiquity: some philosophers of that age referred to the equality of every individual.
人權概念的初韌可回朔到最早古典時代,當時一些哲學家只是人權視為人人平等。

The Magna Charta Libertatum restricted the abuse of power by English kings for the first time.
英國大憲章第一次限制英國國王權力的濫用

With the start of the modern age, the view of the individual began to change. Previously, the individual was defined as part of a group into which he or she was born. Most people were serfs.
隨著現代紀元的展開,對個人的看法也產生了改變。過去,每個人被視為是他/她先天所屬團體的一部份,絕大多數人都為農奴階級。

From that time on, the individual was increasingly the focus of attention. Improved education opportunities and the weakening of feudalism fostered this.
慢慢的,個別性越來越受到重視。因為教育機會的改善與封建制度的勢微強化了這個趨勢。

The first key turning point for the concept of human rights came with the start of the Enlightenment. The philosophy of the Enlightenment reflected the interests of an ever more powerful mercantile and professional class.
人權第一個轉淚點來始於啟蒙時代,啟蒙的哲學家反應了有力的資產階級與專業團體的利益。
It wanted to protect its economic power and pushed for political participation.
他們想要保護自己經濟力量, 並進一步推動政治上的參與。

The Habeas Corpus Act limited arbitrary actions by the state. No-one was to be locked up without a trial and without appearing before a judge.
因此人身保護法,限制國家的任意行為。不能在未經審判的程序、未有法官主持的聽證下任意地抓捕人民。

In the Bill of Rights, the power of the crown was further curtailed and the rights of Parliament strengthened.
之後的 權利法案,皇室的權力進一步受到節制,國會的權力得到強化

These three laws were important human rights milestones. However, very few people benefited from them, principally the aristocracy and a small group of prosperous citizens.
這三個法案是重要的人權里程碑。然而當時仍只有少數人受益,主要是貴族以及少數富有的公民。

In philosophy, too, crucial progress was made.
當時的哲學思想,同時也有重要進展

The concept of natural law has existed since classical antiquity. According to this idea, there is an unwritten law superior to state legislation. Originally, this concept was founded on relig¬ion and signified a divine order.
自古典時代即有的自然法概念下,有一個未寫下規則超越了國家律法,其源自於宗教或是某個神聖指令。

During the Enlightenment, natural law evolved further into the law of reason.
在啟蒙時代,自然法進化作為理性法。

This law was no longer God-given. It was the right of every individual in their capacity as a being endowed with reason.
律法不再只是上天的恩典次予。每個人在其能力以及理性內皆有權利。

John Locke was one of the most important guiding intellectual forces in the sphere of human rights. He claimed that individuals were naturally entitled to certain rights: the right to life, freedom and property.
約翰洛克就是其中一個討論人權概念的重要導師,他認為個人自然地被賦予某些權利,例如生命權、 財產權。

Furthermore, Locke developed a very important new idea, namely that the state was obliged to protect these rights! If it failed to do so then citizens had the right to revolt.
洛克進一步發展一個重要的概念,亦即國家有義務要保護這些權利的實現,如果政府不能做到,則人民有權利發起革命。

The concept of human rights lay at the heart of the American War of Independence and the French Revolution.
這樣的人權概念即是美國獨立戰爭與法國大革命的核心。

As a result of these two major events, human rights were enshrined for the first time in national constitutions.
這兩大事件的結局是,人權從此奉列進入國家憲法。

Here, too, rights were limited exclusively to white men with property, that is to say a small minority. Nevertheless, the fundamental concept of human rights could no longer be stopped!
當然,人權第一次出現在國家憲法當中,這裏所指稱的權利其實仍只有明白地限縮在有財產的的男性白種人,他們只是其中一小部份的人口而已。 僅管如此,權利的基本概念,從此不可能再停止。


The second major turning point in the history of human rights began after the Second World War. The extreme barbarism of the conflict shocked the world. Astonishing things were achieved during the short period between the end of the war and the start of the Cold War: human rights became one of the key pillars of the constitutive charter of the UN. A Universal Declaration of Human Rights was drafted and adopted by the UN General Assembly.
人權史的第二個轉淚點發生在二次大戰之後。極端野蠻的行為震驚了世界。在二戰結束與冷戰開始之間這段時期,達成了驚異的成就:人權變成聯合國憲章的主要軸心之一。世界人權宣言,經由一番討論起草,並在聯合國大會通過。

Two complementary Covenants were also drawn up: the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which sets out the rights of the first dimension.
二大重要互補的公約也被勾勒出來:公民與政治權利國際公約,其搭建起第一代人權。

And the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which encompasses the rights of the second dimension.
再來是經濟社會文化權利國際公約,則是第二代人權。

Three crucial things were new: human rights were now universal. They applied without exception to every individual. Their implementation was monitored by a body of experts.
這三個重要的人權憲章當時帶來一個全新視野,也表示人權的普世性。他們及於每個人身上,相關權利的落實,也將由專家委員會來監督。

To intensify this, a whole series of conventions were adopted, for example the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
為了深化,推動了更多人權公約,例如消除一切型式對婦女歧視國際公約的通過。

In the 1970s, collective rights were incorporated into the human rights debate, primarily by developing countries. They formed the third dimension of human rights.
1970年代,集體性的權利也被整合入人權的討論中,主要是發展中國家,形成了第三代人權。

But let’s get back to the rights of the first dimension. First and foremost, they include civil liberties and protection rights. They are intended to protect each individual from arbitrary acts by the state and make democratic participation in the political sphere possible for everyone.
但讓我們先回顧第一代人權。首先最重要的是,他們包括了公民自由與保護權利。這些權利企圖來保障每一個人免於國家任意行動的騷擾,也會每一個人提供公共生活裏民主參與的機會。

The rights of the first dimension include: protection from state intervention, for example the prohibition of slavery, forced labour and torture, as well as the right to live and the freedom of the individual.
第一代的人權,包括保護個人免於國家侵害。例如禁止奴隸與強迫勞動、酷刑以及生命權、個人自由權利等等

Furthermore, the first dimension guarantees certain liberties, for example, freedom of thought, conscience and religion; freedom of opinion, information and the press.
再者,它也確保一些自由權之保障,例如思想自由、宗教自由、表意以及新聞自由等等。

In addition, it guarantees the equality of men and women and the prohibition of discrimina¬tion of any kind.
此外,它也要確保不論男女,都免於任何型式的歧視。

It is evident that even if many violations are still being committed, the concept of human rights has come a long way. A world without human rights is barely conceivable today.
事實證明,許多人權侵害的行為,仍因為全世界還未把人權概念當作一個重要認知

There is more information on this issue in the other films in the series “WissensWerte” (civic education clips) on human rights.
在這系列動畫裏,將會有更多此議題的相關資訊。

Übersetzungen von Bildinhalten Menschenrechtsclip Nummer 1

- First dimension
第一代人權

- Second dimension
第二代人權

- Third dimension
第三代人權

- Civil and political rights
公民與政治權利

- Economic, social and cultural rights
經濟社會文化權利

- Collective rights
集體權

- Blocked

- Free press
新聞自由

- Independent/ non-partisan
獨立/公正

- Fear of freedom of opinion
意見自由的恐懼

- Free
自由

- Restricted
限制

- Not free

- Press
新聞媒體
- Death penalty
死刑

- Abolished for all crimes
任何犯罪皆不處死刑

- Abolished for minor offences


- Abolished in practice
實際上廢止
- Not abolished
未廢止

- The worst human rights violators
人權狀況最糟的國家

- Myanmar, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea,
- Libya, North Korea, Somalia, Sudan,

- Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan+ Belarus,

- Chad, China, Côte d’Ivoire, Cuba, Laos,

- Saudi Arabia, Syria, South Ossetia (Georgia), Western Sahara

- Asylum
庇護
- Executions
執行
- History
歷史
- Antiquity
古代
- Power
權力

- All individuals are equal
人人平等

- Individualization
個人化

- Mercantile and professional class
商賈與專業階段

- Enlightenment
啟蒙時代

- Arbitrary acts by the state
國家任意行為

- Natural law superior to state law

- Law of reason

- Natural right to life, freedom and property
生命權、自由、財產權
- State
國家

- US Declaration of Independence
美國獨立宣言
- Second World War
二次大戰
- Establishment of the UN
設立聯合國

- Universal Declaration of Human Rights
世界人權宣言
- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
公民與政治權利國際公約
- International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
經濟社會文化權利國際公約
- Conventions
人權公約
- Collective rights
集體權
- Protection rights
權利保障

- Slavery, forced labour, torture, right to life, freedom of the individual
奴隸、強迫勞勳、酷刑、生命權、個人自由
- Liberties
自由權
- Freedom of thought, conscience, religion, opinion, information and the press
思想自由、意識良心;宗教、意見、資訊與新聞界

- Discrimination, equality
歧視;平等
- First dimension, human rights violations, history
第一代人權,人權侵害、人權史
- A project by

- Realized by
實現
- Speaker
- With the support of

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