第二代人權

繼之前提過的第一代人權動畫短片翻譯工作後,本系列又有一部中文版短片即將問世。其實以下的文字資料中文翻譯,並不是由我擔任,而要感謝二位熱心志工的協助,很快地完成了中文版字幕的翻譯。(但此刻英文版的短片仍未完成,德語版可參考此處。)


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The series “WissensWerte” (civic education clips) on human rights consists of a general film on this issue and one film on each of the three dimensions of human rights. Each dimension is of equal importance in the human rights system.
在本系列公民教育短片有一般的人權議題,和三代人權介紹。每一代人權體系中都同等重要。

The history of human rights, current human rights violations, as well as the

development of the human rights system and its greatest problems, are also examined.
This clip looks at the second dimension: economic, social and cultural rights, also

known as ESC rights.
人權的歷史、現今人權的迫害,以及人權體系發展和它最大的問題,也在這段影片中進行探討。這

部短片主要探討著第二代人權:經濟、社會與文化權,簡稱為ESC權利。

What is more, it examines the role of NGOs such as Amnesty International and looks at

women’s human rights.
進一步接著探討非政府組織(像是國際特赦組織)的角色和婦女的權利。

But exactly which rights belong to the second dimension?
但是,哪些權利是屬於第二代人權呢?

Economic rights include: the right to work and the right to fair working conditions.

The right to form trade unions, the right to strike and a ban on child and forced

labour.
經濟權包括工作權和合理工作條件。成立工會的權利、罷工權,禁用童工和禁止強迫勞動等等。

Social rights include:
社會權包括:
The right to social security and the right to a decent standard of living. This also

comprises the right to clothing, housing and food, in particular access to water.
Furthermore, they include the protection of the health of mothers and children and the

right to education for all, together with free access to primary education.
社會保險和合宜生活水準,並包括食、衣、住,特別是用水的權利。更進一步地說,這些權利包括

母親和孩童的健康受到保護,人人受教育獲得免費的初級教育。

Cultural rights are also fostered and protected, in particular the rights of minorities

or indige¬nous peoples. For example, the right to participate in cultural life. And the

protection of intellectual property.
文化權也被提倡和保護,特別是少數族群或是原住民。例如,有權參與文化生活和智慧財產保護。

What is more, the ban on discrimination forms a key part of all human rights.
No one should be discriminated against on the grounds of their origins, religion,

gender, sexual orientation, the colour of their skin, age or other differences.
更有甚者,禁止歧視是人權的重要關鍵。不因背景、宗教、性別、性向、膚色、年紀或是其他差異

,而遭歧視。

Economic, social and cultural rights emerged in 1966 when they were set out in the

United Nations International Covenant which deals with these rights.
The international convention entered into force in 1976. It has now been ratified by

160 states.
經濟、社會、文化權,在1966年聯合國國際公約出現。該國際公約於1976年開始生效,現在已有160

多國家批淮。

Originally, the idea was that this Covenant and the Covenant on Civil and Political

Rights would form a single comprehensive convention.
原本一開始,是希望將這個公約和〈公民與政治權利國際公約〉能一起形成一個全面性的人權公約



During the Cold War, however, East and West could not agree. Human rights became a pawn

for political interests.
然而,冷戰時期,美國和蘇聯兩大勢力並不同意此想法。人權變成政治利益/談判的籌碼。




The rights of the first dimension – such as freedom of opinion and political

participation – were a problem for the authoritarian governments of the Eastern bloc.

They therefore pre¬ferred to promote the ESC rights of the second dimension in the

debate on human rights.
Partly in reaction to this and partly out of conviction, the Western bloc focused on

civil and political rights.
對東歐威權政府而言,第一代人權-如言論和參與政治的權利-是一個難題。因此,他們寧願選擇宣

傳ESC權利,也就所謂的第二代人權。西方陣營集專注在公民與政治權利,部分原因是回應國際公約

協定,而部分原因是出於東西方之間的抗衡。

This meant that ESC rights received less attention than civil and political rights

during this period.
這段期間,比之於公民與政治權利相較之下,ESC權利較少受到注意。

While the rights of the first dimension were considered to be legally enforceable, ESC

rights were regarded more as goals to be achieved.
第一面向的權利被認為在法律上可以強制執行時,ESC權利則多被視為可達成的目標。

Since the end of the Cold War, however, there has been a push to give ESC rights the

same legal status as civil and political rights.
This is important for it promotes the principle of the indivisibility of human rights.
自冷戰結束,ESC權利,與同等具有法律地位的公民與政治權利,持續被推動。

NGOs play a key role in developing and implementing this legal foundation.
在這些人權發展和執行法律基礎中,非政府組織扮演了重要角色。

NGOs are civil society organizations which do not have any ties with governments.
非政府組織是公民社會組織,與政府沒有任何關係。

There are a large number of NGOs in the field of human rights. The best known

organizations which campaign in a wide range of fields include Amnesty International,

Human Rights Watch, Human Rights First and the International Society for Human Rights.
有很多人權領域的非政府組織。其中,為人熟知的包括,國際特赦組織、人權觀察、Human Rights

First、International Soiety for Human Rights。
There are also many organizations with a special focus. For example, Human Rights

Cam¬paign promotes the rights of homosexual and transsexual people. FIAN focuses on the

right to food. Habitat International Coalition champions the right to housing. While

Survival Inter¬national focuses on the human rights of indigenous peoples.
In addition to these well-known examples, there are countless small local NGOs which do

valuable work in the human rights field.
也有很多組織專注在特定議題。例如,Human Rights Cam¬paign 關注同志與跨性別人權。FIAN專注

於食品資訊相關的權利。Habitat International Coalition專注在爭取居住環境品質的權利。

Survival Inter¬national則專注在原住民的人權議題上。

NGOs have a broad range of instruments:
非政府組織提供廣泛的工具:

They provide information on human rights:
他們提供與人權相關的資訊:

For only those who know their rights can exercise or fight for them.
提供那些知道運用自身權利或是爭取權利的人。

They monitor human rights violations around the world and draw attention to them.
他們監督世界各地人權迫害狀況,讓世人關注此問題。

They protest and organize campaigns against human rights violations. The public outrage

this provokes turns into pressure on those violating human rights.
他們透過抗議和安排活動以對抗人權迫害。將民眾的憤怒轉化去向人權侵害者施壓。

They help the victims of human rights violations to join forces and better protect

their interests.
幫助人權受害人保護自身的權益。

They work in national and international bodies to extend the human rights system.
與國內外的機構合作以擴展人權體系。

Many NGOs offer the chance to become involved at various levels. They are thus a key

point of contact for anyone who is interested in human rights or would like to become

actively involved in championing them.
許多非政府組織提供不同層級的參與機會。大眾若對人權有興趣或是想積極參與活動,NGO就成了重

要連絡點。

The question of women’s human rights is also closely linked to ESC rights. For women in

particular are often denied ESC rights.
婦女權利也和ESC權利環環相扣。尤其是婦女時常被排出在這些權利之外。

Around two-thirds of the world’s poor and illiterate are women. Women earn less: in the

EU, the average income of female workers is typically one quarter lower than that of

their male colleagues.
全球大約三分之二的貧困和文盲者是女性。: 在歐盟,女性員工的收入通常只有男性的四分之三(

女性賺得比較少)。

And the situation regarding first dimension rights is not much better. For example,

only around ten percent of the world’s members of parliament are women.女性在第一代人權

的狀況並沒有比較好。例如,在全世界的議會成員中,女性只有佔百分之十的席次。

The UN Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), which

entered into force in 1981, was an important step forward. In 2000, an Optional

Protocol allowing individuals or groups to submit a complaint entered into force. This

made it easier to enforce rights.
消除對婦女一切形式歧視公約(CEDAW)於1981年生效後,邁進了重要的一步。2000年,允許個人和

團體提出申訴的任擇議定書生效。如此,讓各項權利的推動更加容易。

The final declaration of the World Conference on Human Rights held in Vienna in 1993

was the first document to also describe violence against women in the private sphere as

a human rights violation and to condemn it.

1993年維也納人權世界會議所通過的最終宣言,也是第一份有關於婦女在私領域的權利侵害和譴責

暴力的宣言。
Despite this progress, the extreme discrimination suffered by women remains one of the

big¬gest problems in the human rights system.
儘管或有進展,女性受到極端歧視仍是人權體系裡最大的問題。

More information on human rights and the other dimensions can be found in the other

WissensWerte Clips.
更多有關人權和其他方面的資訊可以在其他本系列其它短片中取得。

Bildtext
圖片文字
- Economic rights經濟權
- Trade union 工會
- This plant is on strike 這個星球在抗議/地球在罷工
- Social rights 社會權
- Education 教育
- Cultural rights 文化權
- All individuals are equal 所有的人皆平等
- International Covenant on ESC rights經濟、社會和文化權利國際公約
- Signed 簽署
- Ratified 批准
- International Covenant on Human Rights 國際人權公約
- Eastern bloc states 蘇聯集團/社會主義陣營/共產主義陣營
- Western bloc states 西方聯盟/資本主義陣營/自由主義陣營
- Enforceable right 執行權
- Goals to be achieved目標可以被達成
- Indivisible 不可分割的
- Stop 停止
- National 國家的
- International 國際的
- Poor 貧困
- Illiterate 文盲
- Seats in parliaments 會議席次
- Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women
消除對婦女一切形式歧視公約
- CEDAW Convention
消除對婦女一切形式歧視公約
- Optional Protocol on individual and group complaints
個人和團體提出申訴的任擇議定書
- World Conference on Human Rights (Vienna)
世界人權會議
- Final declaration
最終宣言/最後宣言
- Second dimension, NGO, women’s rights
第二面向,非政府組織,婦女權

0 意見:

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